Sunday, March 22, 2020

10 Words That Dont Mean What You May Think They Do

10 Words That Dont Mean What You May Think They Do 10 Words That Don’t Mean What You May Think They Do 10 Words That Don’t Mean What You May Think They Do By Mark Nichol As English evolves, word meanings shift and turn, sometimes reversing themselves altogether. These ten words have shifted their senses over the years. In some cases, we are wise to likewise be flexible; in others, we relax our vocabulary at the expense of useful distinctions: 1. Decimate The literal meaning of this word, as all you lovers of Latin (not to be confused with Latin lovers) know all too well, is â€Å"to reduce by one-tenth,† supposedly from the punitive custom of selecting one out of ten captives by lot and killing those so selected. But the senses for this rhadamanthine Roman policy have proliferated, so that now it means â€Å"tithed,† â€Å"drastically reduced,† or â€Å"destroyed† as well. 2. Disinterested Commonly employed to mean â€Å"not interested,† disinterested has a precise, useful meaning of â€Å"neutral, unbiased.† 3. Enormity Some people would reserve this word to mean â€Å"monstrously wicked,† but, in truth, it is properly invoked to refer to anything overwhelming or an unexpected event of great magnitude, and thus it need not be invariably corrected to enormousness except when it is clearly in reference to a loathsome occurrence. Refrain, however, from diluting the word’s impact in such usage as â€Å"The enormity of the new stadium struck them as they approached the towering entrance.† 4. Fortuitous This word means â€Å"occurring by chance,† but its resemblance to fortune has given it an adopted sense of â€Å"lucky.† For meticulous adherence to the traditional meaning, use fortuitous only in the sense indicated in this sentence: â€Å"His arrival at that moment was fortuitous, because her note had not specified the exact time of her departure.† Nothing in the context qualifies his arrival as fortunate; the sentence merely states that he arrived in time without knowing that he would do so. The informal meaning is expressed here: â€Å"His fortuitous arrival at that very moment enabled him to intercept the incriminating letter.† In this sentence, the time of his appearance is identified as a lucky stroke. 5. Fulsome This term originally meant â€Å"abundant, generous, full,† but that sense was rendered obsolete when the word acquired a negative connotation of â€Å"offensive, excessive, effusive.† Conservative descriptivists rail against the use of fulsome in a positive sense, but the cold, hard fact is that this sense has been increasingly resurgent for many years, and the adulatory meaning is now much more common than the condemnatory one. If you wish to stand fast before the tsunami of inevitability, be my guest, but fulsome as an exquisite insult has been consigned to the dustbin of history. Some commentators recommend that because of the word’s ambiguity, it’s best to avoid its use altogether. If you insist, make sure the context is clear. 6. Ironic The impact of ironic has been diluted because many people use it to mean â€Å"coincidental,† when its traditional definition is â€Å"counter to expectations or what is appropriate.† 7. Literally Some folks get exercised when this term is used in place of its antonym, figuratively. However, in a hyperbolic sense, that meaning is justified. Unfortunately, that sense is literally overused. 8. Notorious This term is occasionally used in a neutral sense, but that’s not an error, but the word literally means â€Å"known.† However, its dominant connotation is that the fame is a result of infamy. 9. Peruse This victim of definition reversal literally means â€Å"to use thoroughly,† and its first sense is that of careful steady or attentive reading. However, many writers (myself included) have employed it as a synonym for scan enough writers, as a matter of fact, that its second sense is â€Å"to look over or through in a casual or cursory manner. Unfortunately, these mirror meanings mean that if you use the word, I advise you to support it with context that clarifies the intended sense. 10. Plethora Plethora originally referred to an excess of something, but that usage is rare now, and more often the sense is simply of abundance. The medical meaning of swelling caused by an excess of blood is all but unknown. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:7 Types of Narrative ConflictThat vs. WhichHow to Style Legislative Terms

Thursday, March 5, 2020

An Ethical Review Essay Example

An Ethical Review Essay Example An Ethical Review Essay An Ethical Review Essay SYNOPSIS In the imagination of â€Å"the not-too-distant† future of our world, the movie Gattaca by Andrew Niccol revolves around the technological advancement of genetics that allows society to eliminate almost all possibilities of defects in the newborns. However, Vincent Freeman, the protagonist, is a product of the obsolete method of conceiving and was born with a number of dysfunctions. He is determined to be an astronaut but with his â€Å"imperfections†, he has zero chance. Strong-willed and unrelenting, he assumes the identity of Jerome Morrow, crippled by an accident and is willing to help Vincent. Armed with DNA samples from Jerome, Vincent is in the quick run towards achieving his goal. In a sudden turn of events, the Mission Director is murdered and Vincent sloppily leaves an eyelash at the scene. He has to figure out a way to avoid stirring any suspicions, pass all DNA tests and hope that he can still follow his dreams. STAKEHOLDERS One of the stakeholders is Vincent Freeman. He has to take extreme measures in order to pursue his dream. Any slight mistakes would jeopardize his mission. Director Josef is also a stakeholder because after the murder of the Mission Director, he misleads the investigation held to avoid being a suspect himself. Another stakeholder is Jerome Morrow. As he â€Å"lends† his identity to Vincent, he could be convicted for being an accomplice of Vincent if the authorities ever discover his act. CHARACTERS AND THEIR ETHICAL DILEMMA The main villain in the story is Director Josef because he committed a murder for self-interest. Director Josef was in an ethical dilemma as he was about to murder the Mission Director. The Mission Director was going to abort the mission to Saturn’s 14th moon, Titan. To ensure that the mission will continue, Director Josef challenged his own ethics since he was also genetically engineered, claimed of not having any strains of violence in his genome. Vincent Freeman, the hero, was in an ethical dilemma when he requested the help from German, the man that introduced him to the original Jerome Morrow. He knew that he was breaking the law by doing so but he did what he had to do in order to pursue his ambition. ________________ ETHICAL ISSUES There are a number of issues that can be pointed out in the movie Gattaca. The main issue is the discrimination of a person by only the judgment of the genetic information in one’s DNA. People that are born naturally are considered inferior to the ones that are genetically engineered. This can be clearly seen in the life of the main protagonist of this story, Vincent Freeman. Vincent was born after the supposed outdated way of conceiving by his mother. With defects such as highly probable heart failure, among other complications, even his father thought that Vincent was not worthy of his name, Antonio. In fact, the name was given to Vincent’s brother, Anton, who was genetically superior to Vincent. Vincent’s earlier part of life was not too pleasant because even his own parents did not give any support when he showed a great interest in space odyssey. During the job interview, though he was fully prepared with all his knowledge of space navigation and physical sk ills, he was rejected because of his genetic inferiority. At Gattaca, those who are considered lesser in rank are only employed as janitors to tidy up the place while the rest are given the opportunity to work in Gattaca itself. Another issue ensues when Director Josef murdered the Mission Director. He committed the crime in order to ensure that the mission to Titan would still continue and he would live to see it. The investigation on the murder was led by none other than Vincent’s own brother, Anton. When an eyelash that belonged to Vincent was caught in the DNA sweep done by the police, he approached his brother and offered him protection before he was discovered, perhaps as an act of benevolence. The issue arises as this happens because it shows that even an officer of the law could sway from his own duty. According to John Rawl’s Veil of Ignorance, Anton should be fair by apprehending Vincent although they were brothers. Another issue to be pointed out is based on the character of Irene Cassini. She was the one that initially had a suspicion on Vincent about his true identity, especially when the Mission Director was murdered. When she discovered that Vincent was only posing as Jerome Morrow, it was already too late as she was already falling in love with him. As a law abiding citizen she should have gone to the police on her discovery. Instead, she kept it a secret and she even helped Vincent to conceal his true identity. Even though there are lot of legal issues that can actually be seen but the most important one to be clarified is when Vincent went to get help from German. He was aware that by assuming the identity of Jerome Morrow, he was in an obvious breach of the law. However, he still proceeded with the plan and went through the complicated procedures in order to cheat through the DNA tests that are constantly conducted in Gattaca. ________________ CONSEQUENTIALISM Consequentialism is a philosophy emphasizing that an act is considered ethical if the good consequences trumps the negative consequences. The villain, Director Josef committed a serious crime when he murdered the Mission Director. According to the consequentialist point of view, his action is ethical because as a result of it, the mission to Titan was able to be carried on. The hero, Vincent was also able to go on the mission and at last fulfil his dream. The action of Director Josef can be considered as an act of egoism but ultimately it bought enough time to ensure that the mission would proceed as it should be. By sacrificing his own liberty, he was able to give more benefits than burdens to others. In other words, his act of supposedly in self interest was actually an act of altruism, though it was still a crime. In fact, retributive justice was served at the end of the story as the police finally found out that Director Josef is the true culprit behind the murder of the Mission Director. DEONTOLOGY Deontology differs from the philosophy of consequentialism. Deontology focuses more on the rights or duties that motivate the decision or action rather than its consequences. The hero, Vincent Freeman assumes the identity of Jerome Morrow in order to infiltrate Gattaca and become an employee there as a navigator. He defied the law that clearly forbade a man of his stance to be on the list for the mission to Titan. From a deontologist point of view, Vincent is considered unethical because his rights or duties did not allow him to do such things just for the sake of his dreams. Although his action did no harm to others, from a deontologist point of view, it is considered very unethical. The law only allowed him to go as far as being a janitor at Gattaca. His job was only to clean the floors of Gattaca as he should, based on his DNA inferiority. Although he had known almost everything on space navigation by heart and had enhanced his physical skills, he had no rights to join the space p rogram, let alone be a navigator for the trip to Titan. It was not in his supposed job description. Clearly, his ambition does not justify his actions whatsoever. GOLDEN RULE The Golden Rule can qualify as a universal principle that requires us to treat others the way we want others to treat us. If I were to be in Director Josef’s position, I would not have murdered the Mission Director. I would have had a proper meeting with the Mission Director to sort things out professionally about continuing the mission to Titan. I would reason him out and try to talk to him without resorting to violence. I would have thought that the Mission Director might have a wife and kids of his own and I would not have their husband and father to leave them just like that. Furthermore, if I was the villain, even if I did commit the murder, I would immediately surrender myself to the police. The guilt of doing such cruel thing would destroy me if I just keep it just to myself. I had taken another person’s life it is truly unforgivable. Just by remembering the face of the person that I murdered would keep me up all night for the rest of my life. What if he did have his own family? How would they respond to such a horrible mishap that I was responsible for? Who would be responsible to take care of them? Imagine if someone else would do the same to me. My family would be left with no one to take care of them. Just because I made a horrible mistake, a lot of people are going to suffer. Plus, the act of taking another person’s life is up to God, the almighty Creator. Furthermore, I would be most ashamed towards my colleagues that I have been working with for many years. They would think that there maybe someone else just like me that would commit such crime to them. They would be very suspicious of everyone around them. The workplace will seem to be unsafe for them. Besides that, I am very ashamed to all members of the possible crew to Titan especially Vincent because I know how much he wanted to fly into space land on Saturn’s moon. My action might not result to the continuation of the mission but rather to an immediate halt altogether as the Mission Director was supposed to lead the whole expedition. As the Golden Rule would suggest, if I want others to hear me out and do as I say, I would have to hear and do as what they may say. Maybe none of the tiresome events would even have to happen and with much luck the trip to Titan can be continued without resorting to violence. ________________ LESSONS From what I have observed from the movie, people can go to very much extreme measures in order to achieve their goal. However, we must not do something that can harm or affect the lives of others in a bad way. We should actually be more prepared to handle hard situations in a correct and a proper way by ourselves. Irene Cassini is a good example of this. She was not genetically engineered and yet she managed to get into Gattaca. Vincent was not too patient about it and he resorted to unlawful measures like assuming another person’s life. Even if he did not get into Gattaca, he should be thankful that he had a job. I learned from this movie that there are vices that we should avoid and there are virtues that we should follow. Besides that, I learned that we must not discriminate others that are different or less fortunate than us. Discrimination comes in different forms such as age, sex or ethnicity. There are others that may have better skills or knowledge than us but just because they are different than us we should not mix with them. We should put aside our differences and find out what we have in common so that we can all work together as a good team. Vincent’s persona was a splendid example of what reality is like for us. A most valuable lesson indeed: Do not judge a book by its cover. Next, in our everyday endeavour, we should always use our aql before we do anything and think of all the consequences of the action that we were about to do. The benefits and burdens should be identified, whether it is for us or for other people. I also learned that every action will not go unjustified, whether it is distributive, compensatory or retributive justice from God. By the God’s will, the vices will be punished and the virtues will be handsomely awarded, if not now, in the afterlife. I also learned that parents should not be selective of how each of the children are treated. They all must be treated as equally as the others. Unhappy childhood could result to many complications as they grow up so it is up to the parents to make sure that they children are in the right track. Lastly, we should not practise the syaitaniyyah behaviour such as selfishness and lying because it can affect our lives in a bad way. We should also try to avoid doing things like altering our genetic codes just to be more superior because we would be changing how God intend us to be and that is sinful.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Insanity defense Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Insanity defense - Term Paper Example 249). This defense has posed an insoluble problem to the criminal justice system – Contrary to the criminal law which seeks to punish the criminal; the insanity defense seeks to excuse the criminal of responsibility (Fersch, 2005). Affirming the crucial importance of criminal intent in defining a crime, this term paper contends that insanity defense is morally justified and necessary because without this justice may be unwittingly denied. Insanity Defenses The recognition and standard of insanity defense vary across states and have changed through the years: From the M’Naghten rule (1841) to the introduction of Diminished Responsibility (1866) and to the Insanity Defense Reform Act of 1984. (Reznek, 1997; Fersch, 2005) These changes did not abolish neither weaken the insanity defense, but instead further rationalized its justness as can be deduced from its five categories. First, the cognitive defense asserts that the offender is not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) because his mental illness prevents him from knowing the wrongfulness of his act. This defense must prove that at the time of the criminal act, the defendant must have been damaged by a mental illness to a point that the defendant did not know what he was doing and that what he was doing was wrong. Second, the volitional defense asserts that the offender is NGRI because his mental illness prevents him from controlling his impulses, causing him to act criminally. This defense though not widely accepted is used in crimes of passion. Third, the causal defense asserts that the offender is NGRI because his mental illness causes him does the criminal act unconsciously. This defense may apply in automatism cases where a person may have purposefully committed a crime in an unconscious state. For example, Simon Fraser in his sleep walking unknowingly battered his son to death while dreaming that he was defending himself against a wild beast. Fourth, the character change defense asserts that the offender is NGRI because his mental illness changes his moral character causing his criminal act. Here, the defendant’s decent character must be proven, showing that his wrongful act is clearly out of his character. And fifth, the diminished capacity defense asserts that the offender is NGRI because his mental illness reduces his culpability for committing the crime. This defense may not necessarily exonerate the defendant from criminal liability but can reduce the quality of the crime and hence the sentence. (Reznek 1997) This defense, Williams (1983) clarifies, is judged based on the morality of the case rather than psychiatric findings that its success relies more on getting the sympathy of jurors (as cited in Reznek, 1997, p. 278). These categories of insanity defense emphasize the incapacitating impact of mental illness on the moral judgment of the defendant causing his criminal act. Since criminal responsibility requires moral culpability and since justice demands t he punishment of evil ones, then insanity defense is justified (Reznek, 1997). Therefore, insanity defense is not only an excuse to avoid punishment but is essential to ensure the integrity of the criminal law. To abolish insanity defense may compromise criminal justice. Temporary Insanity The temporary insanity defense is an excuse doctrine that concerns the blameworthiness of the actor. Unlike conventional insanity

Monday, February 3, 2020

Motives and Incentives and Their Impact On the Performance of Essay

Motives and Incentives and Their Impact On the Performance of Employees In Government Hospitals within The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia - Essay Example This research will begin with the statement that the modern business environment poses a significant challenge for businesses at both the local and international level. The global crisis has made it increasingly vital for organizations to take measures to ensure the life of their businesses, overcoming both internal and external operation factors to achieve revenue growth and corporate performance. It is widely agreed that effective management of one of the most important factors for organizations to stay profitable in a highly competitive global economy. These factors of production are the three M’s: materials, machine, and manpower. It is the last of these, the human resource of a company, which poses the biggest challenge. A motivated employee is a valuable asset that brings tremendous worth to an organization. This research will try to look into the style and strategies of Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah, the company in focus, in dealing with their workforce and how their workf orce stays motivated and happy with their job. It is the purpose of this paper to identify the motivational strategies and incentives that would improve employee behavior in the workplace. The focus of this study will be an evaluation of the practices of hospitals in Saudi Arabia, particularly Al-Amal Hospital in Jeddah. This will include an evaluation of the employee motivation and incentive strategies available to Al-Jamal Hospital, how they were applied in the organization and the effectiveness of these approaches. As the data collected for random sampling will be from a single company, this study will be demographically limited. The opinions, feelings, beliefs, and situation of participants may, therefore, be insufficient to totally represent the situations at other hospitals in Saudi Arabia or the feeling of their employees toward motivation and incentives. In terms of the secondary data from the various literature, studies, and researchers, there is a potential risk of relying upon information that cannot be proven correct within the context of this study, given that the results will not be derived not from data based on empirical study.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Personal Reflection In The Medicine Curriculum Personal Development Essay

Personal Reflection In The Medicine Curriculum Personal Development Essay The basic sciences are a ubiquitous component of the medical course and comprehensive understanding of all subjects is fundamental in developing a solid foundation on which to build an understanding of the clinical sciences. Like many students, my biggest issue with the transition into the tertiary education system was primarily the different teaching approach, which accommodated predominately auditory learners. Having always been a highly visual and kinesthetic learner, I found subjects such as biochemistry, physiology and microbiology very difficult to understand, not only in terms of the overwhelming vocabulary but the underlying concepts and principles. Animations I found online and through textbook supplementary resources, uncovered a whole new world of understanding for me, allowing me to physically visualise concepts which were once beyond my comprehension. Prior to each scenario I now search for online animations that can illustrate to me the basic concepts which provide me a visual framework from which I can continue my learning for that scenario. Feedback from my first two assignments concerning this capability provided very little help, it was only once I received my first P- and corresponding constructive criticism that I was Overall lacking necessary details that I strived to improve on this capability. The feedback reminded me to critically asses my resources and to be meticulous with the quality of information, improving my research technique and being more scrupulous with my information, my subsequent assignments improved in quality. This was validated by the positive feedback I received of A very clear and accurate; In all very well described and understood. After numerous lighthearted attempts to cease smoking after 3 pack years, I found the subject matter of my HM A assignment, Varenicline, a new smoking cessation drug, very interesting. Understanding the neurobiological perspective of addiction and withdrawal through the action of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and understanding the clinical manifestation and pathology underlying serious health consequences of tobacco-related illnesses such as cancer, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases persuaded me to give a serious effort to cease smoking, whereby I could now make the connections between the pathology with clinical symptoms I was experiencing first hand. I feel this could be very useful and important when communicating with future patients, being able to explain the medical sciences underlying a condition or presenting symptom could help them understand more personally. I have noticed the latest health prevention methods on quitting smoking are following the same principle wh ereby they emphasise the association of a smokers cough and emphysema. Through Phase One I have been able to gain an appreciation of the contributions of each subject and find that no one subject is any more or less important than the next in the context of medical knowledge. A solid understanding of anatomy and histology, provide the foundations for understanding the physiological processes of human life, which set the tone for how these normal functions can go wrong through pathological disturbances which reveal themselves ultimately as clinical manifestations. I feel there is still a massive proportion of knowledge that I still have to retain, and hope through the progressive phases I gain as much basic science knowledge as I can.       Social and Cultural Aspects of Health and Disease Prior to entering the medicine course, I was oblivious to the social and cultural aspects of health and disease. It did not take long for me to realise the importance of these influences on individual health attitudes, disease progression and health care access, soon becoming my one of favourite components of the medicine curriculum. My first individual assignment assessed the role of social and cultural factors in the aetiology of eating disorders, and depression in adolescents who experienced weight-teasing. Although I found each individual case unique in regards to aetiology and contributing factors, culture, ethnicity, acculturation and socio-economic status all played important roles in disease development. Furthermore my group project analysed Gay, Lesbian and Bisexual (GLB) Youth health and perceptions in the rural community. The group project caught me off-guard, because I had realised I had completely forgotten about the rural community and through the project I discovered t he vast comparison between metropolitan health care and rural health. Living in metropolitan Sydney for twenty one years it is easy to forget about the broader community, GLBY living in conservative rural towns face problems of judgement and confidentiality issues, along with the absence or lack of access of support in rural communities which perpetuates the startling statistics of double the suicide rates and risky sexual behavior in GLBY in rural communities compared to metropolitan GLBY. Having few opportunities to experience the rural health care system, I am highly anticipating my rural placement in Phase 3.     Ã‚   My assignment on the ethics of Brain Death and Withdrawing Life Support revealed to me the ethical, legal, cultural and religious diversity in a pluralistic society where the differences between the patient and the medical team are an underappreciated barrier to effective, cooperative treatment and care especially when negotiating a sensitive and dignified process of dying. The differences in the process of ethical reasoning, cosmologies, and key moral concepts between religions must be understood and respected as a medical professional. For example Catholicism considers the withdrawal of life support acceptable if the support is merely maintaining life and merely delaying death; whereas Judaism has a rigorous commitment to the sacredness of life and Orthodox Jewish patients must accept all treatments that will preserve every possible moment of life. Understanding and appreciating these differences is mandatory living in our multicultural and pluralistic society. Although my Transplant Tourism assignment was not catergorised under this capability, I learnt a lot from it in terms of the disparity between health standards in a Newly Industrialised Economy and that of a Developed country. The donation of a kidney is often not an expression of individual autonomy and an altruistic gesture, but rather acts of desperation by impoverished individuals, exploited by a corrupt system which lacks the basic governing power to intervene. Nephrectomy, having little long term consequences when performed in a developed country, poorer living conditions, unsatisfactory professional misconduct, lack of support and medications, and poor access to medical resources and education result in a decline in health status for many donors in newly industrializing economies. As Australia grows as one of worlds largest multicultural communities, I believe this translates into our medical practice as patients who not only have specific medical conditions related to their n ationality, but specific medical experiences which can hinder effective patient management between patient and practitioner. For example my partners parents have very little faith in the health system, based on experiences they have had in their home country. Where there are few uncorrupt regulatory bodies to maintain high levels of care and professional conduct. So if a doctor acts with unsatisfactory professional misconduct, performs beyond their qualifications or engages in over servicing to increase profits, which occurs recurrently, there is little the patient can do. This perpetuates a distrust of doctors and the health system which they carry with them when they come to Australia. Culture specific management is imperative in the social context of Australia and I look forward to learning more about the different cultures, societies and religions, particularly rural health implications in Australia. Patient Assessment and Management Competent patient assessment and management is critical in providing quality health services to patients, and can determine or improve prognosis if done appropriately and effectively. The challenges of case studies within the course are thoroughly enjoyable and have allowed me to observe how the medical knowledge that we accumulate from varying aspects of medicine collaborate and integrate. This however took some time to understand, as the lack of knowledge of the clinical sciences, management methods and generally everything made amalgamating the information into a cohesive and comprehendible scenario very difficult. I feel the more knowledge I learn throughout the course, the more confident I get as I am able to make connections between previous scenarios and understand more comprehensively the patients situation. An accident involving my friend and a scooter whilst in Thailand was an experience that demonstrated to me the utmost importance of effective assessment and management. The ambulance which was called, had very minimal medical equipment, with the paramedic using used gloves to assess his open wounds, the standards of care did not improve at the medical clinic so my friend thought it best if I take him back to the hotel and I look after him myself. Using basic knowledge from classes focusing on infection prevention and using skills from my senior first aid course, I did the best I could. The experience taught me the value of being fully competent and having a wide understanding of all facets of medicine from clinical sciences, patient assessment, and social and cultural contributions to disease. Furthermore, Understanding the principles behind basic procedural skills and being able to conduct and explain to the patient proper technique behind examinations such as a spirometry is of absolute importance as I was to find out when I went to my GP for a recreational scuba diver examination. My lung function tests returned with an FEV1/FEC% of 59%, indicating I had severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)! The nurse corrected my technique and he had me repeat the test several times, still yielding the same result. It was not until my doctor watched me perform the test and noted the error in my technique, that I yielded a normal FEV1/FEC% of 98%. This experience made me realise the absolute importance of understanding the proper technique of assessment skills as it can make a dramatic difference in patient diagnosis and its implications and also patient confidence in both the practice and the practitioner. Effective Communication Effective communication is essential as it has positive effects on health outcomes, patient satisfaction, therapy compliance and even symptom resolution.    To my surprise I found effective communication to be my weakest capability. When I entered this course, I had little doubts about my communicative abilities, and was even somewhat arrogant towards being taught how to be an effective communicator. Rapport has always been easy for me to establish, allowing me to perform well in superficial meet/greet, factual situations such as in clinical sessions at hospital and at work as a student liaison officer. I am also comfortable communicating to groups of people, often volunteering to undertake the project presentations in scenario group and having no issues talking to complete strangers. However it was not until my communication assignment that my illusions were overturned and I was confronted with my poor communication skills when it comes to something much more meaningful and personal. I was very disappointed at my performance during the interview, although I understand the methods and principles of effective communication, demonstrated by my various Ps and P+s in written assignments, positive feedback in capabilities and my reference letter from my current employer, when I try put it into practice in an interview situation, my composure deteriorates. My nervousness and insecurities hinder me from expressing eloquently what it is I am trying to present, leading to poor inappropriate responses, and my lack of confidence and inability to juggle input and output information concurrently made my responses jumpy and ineffective. I hope with more experience in interview situations I can build my confidence and learn how to compose myself by following a suitable structure and concentrating on the patient and actively listening rather than preoccupying myself with thoughts of what should I ask next?; Am I doing this wrong?. The communications assignment revealed more to me than just my inability to communicate effectively but more so the fact that I struggle to connect with people beyond the superficial, it made me realise I had many friends, but none of which I had a substantial relationship with. I have taken on the plan to learn better communication skills which is a much more mentally demanding and complex process than simply conversing with an individual. Reaching this higher level of skill and fulfillment in living and working with others will require effort, conscious attention, and practice with other people. I can become more skillful and less clumsy, more confident and less fearful, more understanding of others and less threatened by them. To communicate more cooperatively and more satisfyingly I must learn how to participate in my conversations and observe them at the same time. I understand changes as significant as these will take years rather than over night. I hope that when given the opp ortunity to undertake a second communications assignment, I have developed my communication skills to a satisfactory level, where I can have a meaningful conversation with another person, in a coherent, comprehensive manner. Team Work   I was highly apprehensive of my first group project as teamwork was a foreign concept to me. Being a very independent and self reliant individual and having very few notable opportunities to develop my teamwork skills in the past I was unsure of the fundamental skills required to be a good team player. Most notably was my understanding of my role within a team and trusting and relying on the other members of the group. My first group project proved to be a great success both in terms of grades and self development. I learnt I could perform competently in a team environment demonstrated by the positive feedback. I felt trusting in the competency of the other members of my team was easier than I initially expected as we had an initial discussion that developed a mutual understanding of the expectations of one another as a team. However regardless the good marks yielded from the assignment I felt I had plenty to learn in regards to communication, compromising and developing a strong sense of self within a team. I felt I was too passive within the group which in hindsight made a relatively simple task a lot more difficult, lacking the confidence to speak up when I felt uncomfortable undertaking certain tasks and failing to voice concern when I needed help or was uncertain. I was not naÃÆ' ¯ve to believe that developing as a better team player would not be a challenge and it took me several projects to feel comfortable within a group, acting competently as both a contributor and even leader when necessary. I have come to understand that the unequivocal multidisciplinary nature of medicine in todays integrated society makes learning how to function and communicate effectively within a team of the up most importance. Communication, which may be across different disciplines and even languages, is the fundamental foundations necessary for well integrated successful teamwork. I felt my greatest contributions as a team member have been my enthusiasm and positive personality, encouraging other members of the team to participate and stay on track in a friendly environment. I was willing to help out with the odd jobs whenever necessary and engage with other members of the team to develop a cohesive team environment. This naturally led to me taking on a leadership role and I found that leading by example was the best method of ensuring the team stayed on track. My biggest fault as a team player initially was my inflexibility and lack of punctuality to group meetings, my inability to coordinate my time efficiently had ramifications upon the team and its progress. I have rectified the situation by making more time for my education and have realised mutual sacrifice and compromise is all part of being a good team player. Self-Directed Learning and Critical Evaluation   Self directed learning is one of those concepts I was not introduced to until I entered the tertiary education system. Like many students the transition from spoon feeding to self determination was an unexpected and confronting experience. However the development of self-directed and critical evaluation skills throughout the phase has been integral in my progress and growth as a medical student. Although highly proactive and enthusiastic, I have had a tendency to lack the motivation and perseverance to carry on with the structured learning system I devise at the beginning of each teaching block, often due to the overwhelming quantity of information and lack of strict learning objectives which lead me to often deviate from my focus. I have found it helpful to focus strictly on information provided in lectures and practicals, and only at the end of each scenario I refer to external resources for more information. Although satisfactory my negotiated assignment was not evidence of my best work, I definitely didnt put as much effort into it as with my previous assignments. I am disappointed I wasted my only opportunity to explore something that was of interest to me, and hope if given a second chance in later phases, I will take upon a negotiated assignment with more enthusiasm and dedication. In my assignment Varenicline, a New Smoking Cessation Drug, I did an excellent job critically evaluating the ISMP report, unfortunately this was not the set criteria, thus I received a P. This made me aware of the importance of being meticulous, not only in my research, but also keeping focus on the criteria. I received my first F in my generic self directed capability for my group assignment Diagnostic Imaging in Hepatobiliary Disease. We often assume that everyone will submit material of the same academic quality and integrity, and this experience has reminded me to pay closer attention and ensure everyone in the group is at a consensus for the standard of work that is expected of each other. Responsibility, self directed learning and attention to detail are some of few things I have gained from learning to scuba dive. Your actions alone, from checking and maintaining your equipment, assessing water conditions and making sure you have learnt and understood the correct procedures can determine whether you have a successful, enjoyable dive or a miserable and possibly even fatal one.   Ethics and Legal Responsibilities Learning about the ethical and legal responsibilities of medical professionals is one of my most enjoyable aspects of the curriculum. It provides me with an escape from the density of the sciences and allows me opportunities for free thought, reflection and personal development. One notable instance was during one of my first ethics tutorials in BGD where the ethics and morals of abortion were put to debate. Although I didnt tell the class, having undergone an abortion at the age of fifteen, this topic hit very close to home, and I remember getting quite worked up over some of the comments made throughout the debate. I remember feeling frustrated and upset that there were people out there that were so naÃÆ' ¯ve. In hindsight, I am ashamed I was so judgmental and harsh in my opinion of others based on their values, and have learnt to respect different perspectives beyond my own beliefs. The experience also made me realise the implications of ones own experiences, values, morals and beliefs on interactions with possible future patients and the necessity for sensitivity and respect of all perspectives in order to provide the highest level of care. These ideas of tolerance and respect for others was further embedded through the completion of the ethics based assignments which I thoroughly enjoyed, Transplant tourism, which debated non-malfeasance and beneficience, and Ethics of Brain Death and withdrawing life support which discussed the legal and ethical issues associated with medically indicated withdrawal of life sustaining treatment from incompetent/brain dead patients. The concept of patient autonomy permeates throughout medical ethics, as I have come to see through both the assignments and various ethics tutorials. Patient autonomy is increasingly and rightly perceived as a manifestation of the individuals rights of self determination and privacy, universally regarded as a pillar of civil liberty. While there may be temptations on the part of medical professionals to intervene and to protect individuals from their health care choices, the principle of respect for individual autonomy dictates that if these choices can be d eemed autonomous, then they must be respected regardless of the possible adverse consequences of such action, to do otherwise would be unjustified paternalism. However, whatever the truth about the debate there is also strong argument that the issue changes dramatically when introducing a third party into the decision, be it a pregnant mothers rights versus the unborn foetus; or a families religious groundings versus a doctors medical opinion. Although learning about different bioethical arguments and perspectives has been enlightening and enjoyable, developing my own set of values and opinions has been more disconcerting. Ethical reasoning is flexible and volatile, instead of learning a strict set of values, I hope to understand a wide variety of perspectives and adapt this knowledge when it is appropriate. The legal obligations as a health care professional in Australia was highlighted to me when I took legal action against my dentist whose unsatisfactory professional misconduct, negligence and breach of duty of care left me with a servere malocclusion of my jaw leading to tempromandibular joint dysfunctions, requiring extensive treatment. The competency of the regulatory bodies within Australia ensure those who live in Australia receive appropriate and adequate quality medical care. This is a palpable comparison to many other countries around the world, where duty of care is a foreign concept, and regulatory bodies are few and far between. Reflective Practitioner To me, reflection does not mean to look back only on my errors and try to rectify them for the future, but to also analyse experiences and notable occasions and achievements in my life and understand how those experiences have shaped me as an individual on the path to becoming a fully competent, well rounded medical practitioner. Effective communication is by far the most important capability I have to conquer as it is the capability that I am least proficient in and also is the one that hinders my progress in other capabilities such as patient assessment and management and teamwork. I only wish I developed an awareness of the relevance of the graduate capabilities earlier on in my studies so that I could have taken full advantage of opportunities for developing them during the course. Undertaking this process of reflection whilst compiling my portfolio has allowed me to realise that by developing skills beyond my academic achievements I am building attributes required for the lifelong learning that is necessary in the medical profession. I plan to try and a take a moment at the end of each day to reflect on the days achievements and activities. I hope this daily ritual of self awareness will allow me to improve each day. The portfolio has allowed me to become aware of my current level of achievement within each of the graduate capabilities and provided me with a structured manner as to develop specific attributes within the course and encouraged further development of these attributes throughout my degree.   

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Violent Films and Links to Aggression

Social psychology theorizes that prolonged exposure to television and films is having a very noticeable effect on the generations of people growing up in front of the television.   Conrad Kottak expresses this point with reference to the post-modern classroom: research conducted into American classrooms since the 1950’s has helped Kottak conclude that students who have grown up with the television and films have learned to duplicate the behaviours learned in front of the TV in other areas of their lives.Students in successive generations in the American classroom have begun to treat their classes and professors the same way they do their television, with none of the traditional sense of respect (Spradley and McCurdy 2000).Studies of Japanese television show a similar story when it comes to the relationship between exposure to film and behaviour in society.   The television series Selfish Women portrays the lives of several successful business women in Japan; the title is m eant as a reference to how such woman are perceived in real life.Van Esterik, Van Esterik and Miller believe that this television show has picked up on a small trend in non-traditional Japanese households and that after airing it has begun to influence a wider range of women and other viewers who are mimicking behaviours learned from the program (2001).In Social Psychology, the authors suggest that like the cases in Japan and the American classroom, violent films are having an impact on the behaviours of people all over the world (Brehn, Kassim and Fein 2005).   So is there a real correlation between exposure to violence on television and in films and aggression in people?Barker and Petley believe that this is indeed the case, and argue that it is very important for viewers, especially children, to understand that the story portrayed on film is simply fiction; when no real connection is made with real life they believe that viewers are far less likely to actually carry over the vi olence from a movie into their own lives (Barker and Petley 2001).In Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate (Ibid.) the text relates to the relationship between violence in all media forms and aggression in people.   With focus on film violence, what is the proof of such a correlation? Adolescence, a Sociological Approach explains it in terms of comprehensive study results.When compared with a control group of adults, another group of those who have viewed on average more violent television and movies were twice as likely to act in an aggression fashion when provoked (Sebald 1968).There is a very real connection between viewing violence on screen and acting it out in real life, and Sebald suggests that this is because an adult who is exposed to such media images will lose the natural inhibition to overcome violent tendencies.   In seeing these acts of violence on screen with little or no consequence, children grow to believe that this is how the real world perceives violence: as necessary, inconsequential and even ‘cool’.Social psychological theory like this penetrates other fields of study as well as sociology or psychology since people are increasingly concerned with the levels of violence found both in movies and out on the streets of the world.Researchers have worked to prove a link between the two but struggle when it comes to thinking of comprehensive solutions to the rising violence issues.   Does the solution simply lie in the removal of violent images from movies?   Garry (1993) doesn’t think it is as simple as this.The problem with trying to censor violent images on television and in films is that there is no controlling where the censorship ends.   What is to stop censors from targeting true images on news reports or documentaries, something that is already happening on some networks?Garry suggests that this is a superficial attitude, and while it might seem the easy solution to concerned citizens, researchers need to l ook deeper to find the real issues surrounding the spreading violence in society.   Garry points out how the Western value of free speech is always the first to be called into question when it comes to issues like violence, ethics and morality.While violence in movies does have an indisputable link to aggression in adults, people are forgetting that the people affected by these images negatively are not actually the ones who created it.   What societal issues led the writers and producers of violent films to express themselves in this way?Researchers like Garry wonder if it is due to an early oppression of character in the previous generations and in fact nothing primarily to do with film at all.   If you delve further into the societal issues like oppression, child abuse, broken families, poverty and poor education, it is possible that these are the real causes of violence in film, and subsequently, higher instances of violence and aggression in individuals who are exposed to these media images.While statistics do correlate aggression to violence in film, these studies are merely scratching the surface of the entire problem.ReferencesBarker, M, and Petley, J (eds.), 2001, Ill Effects: The Media/Violence Debate, Routledge, New York.Brehm, S, Kassin, S & fein, S, 2005, Social Psychology, Houghton Mifflin.Garry, Patrick, 1993, An American Paradox: Censorship in a Nation of Free Speech, Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT.Miller, B; Van Esterik, P; Van Esterik, J 2001, Cultural Anthropology, Canadian Edition, Allyn and Bacon, Toronto.Sebald, Hans, Adolescence: A Sociological Analysis, 1968,   Appleton-Century-Crofts, New York.

Friday, January 10, 2020

Project Management Organizational Structures Essay

A series of related jobs that are focused toward a major solution is a project. Projects take time, money, people, and other resources to perform successfully. Project management usually controls these resources as well as planning the project and allocating resources where needed. Before a project is started, management decides which organizational structure will be used to run the project. There are three organizational structures that can be chosen from consisting of the Functional, Matrix, and Pure Project structures. Each of these has their advantages and disadvantages in structuring a project. Project managers are in charge of initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing the project. Prior to beginning a project the manager needs to decide which organizational structure is the best fit to run the project at hand. Choosing which organizational structure to use largely depends on the size of the company, what is trying to be accomplished, and what resources are available. This paper will examine the three primary organizational structures mentioned above and the situation in which each structure would be the best method to manage a project team. In the functional project management organizational structure, â€Å"the project is assigned to the functional unit that has the most interest in ensuring its success or can be most helpful in implementing it† (Mantel & Meredith, 2006). This organizational structure has been considerably one of the oldest methods used however, remains one of the most successful. The functional method is best used when applied to routine work functions and to support the value of work standards. Under this organizational structure projects are usually assigned into two different ways consisting of assigning a project to a functional manager who coordinates with others to contribute or assigning the project to different departments who each complete their portion of the work and report to the department managers. Consequently, â€Å"organizational behavior is important because the functional employees at the interface position find themselves reporting to more than one boss, a line manager [ass igned to control resources] and a project manager for each project they are assigned to† (Kerzner, 2006). The functional structure has both advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include a higher flexibility in using the staff through other required  contributions, employees may be switched back and forth between related projects, individuals may be grouped for a larger depth of knowledge, the functional division serves as a â€Å"base of continuity† in the event an individual chooses to withdraw from the project, and the functional field serves as a huge advancement to those who have remained with a the project through a successful completion (Mantel & Meredith, 2006). On the contrary, this structure is not very effective when used on more complex projects and when viewing employee recognition. The individual accountability of tasks is hardly recognized for tasks being performed on an individual basis. Other disadvantages recognized amongst the functional project management organizational structure include the focus not being set on the client, focusing more on activities versus function, slow responses to client needs, lack of interest and motivation in certain areas to the assigned projects, and difficulties in communicating knowledge. Alike the functional organizational structure of project management, the Pure Project structure also has its unique advantages and disadvantages. This structure allows the project to be separated from the rest of the parent system becoming a self contained unit with its own staff, administration, and tying to the parent firm through periodic progress reports and oversight (Mantel & Meredith, 2006). Advantages to using this organizational structure include full authority to the project manager who is project director, shortened lines of communication, strong and separate identities of the project team, the ease of understanding pure project organizations, and the main focus on total project versus optimized subsystems as focused by other organizational structures. The Pure Project structure is effective in dedicating resources through the life of a project. This method is excellent in executing complex projects in that it meets the demands of the project by â€Å"isolating unique work and maintaining a strong focus on completing the project† (Russell, 2008). This structure reacts rapidly to the needs of clients contrary to those in the functional organizational structure. This Pure Project structure’s inefficiencies include the transfers in technology and the use of resources, which are provided through the life of the project as well as duplications  of effort, fostering of inconsistencies, and the project taking on a life of its own. The Matrix organizational structure of project management is much a combination of both the functional and Pure Project organizational structures. This project management structure evolved from the flaws in the other two structures previously discussed. Being combined of the other two organizational structure of project management, the Matrix structure can take on a large assortment of specific forms. This structure works very well when several projects are being coordinated at once. Contrary to the best components combined from the other two organizational structures of functional and Pure Project are the disadvantages of the Matrix structure consisting of conflicts. Having â€Å"individual employees to report to at least two managers often leads to ambiguity and conflict† which in turn could be avoided through proper communication (Russell, 2008). Much of the criticisms of this Matrix structure include the dark side of its advantages for balancing out who is in charge of the project, failure of project due to lack of negotiating skills, the severity of shutting down a project because of the project’s individual identities, and balancing time, cost, and performance. There is not one organizational structure better than the other. Each organizational structure has its advantages and disadvantages. The decision rests on what project the manager is trying to accomplish. The project manager needs to decide which organizational structure best suits that project. The project manager needs to assess the available resources, finances, and keep in mind the timeframe that has been assigned to the project. In order for the project to be successful, the project manager must compare the organizational structures in order to decide which would be the most suitable. In conclusion, organizational structures are never stagnant and frequently change based on the needs and the strategy that is employed by the organization. Organizational strategies dictate the structures that can be used by the organization and the success that these structures will have in  the improvement of the productivity of the workforce in the organization. Any structure ultimately is used to improve the manner by which organizations report and communicate with the other elements within the organization. Organizational structures, rules and regulations, are generally viewed as instruments set in place to facilitate and aid task performance by all those involved in the organization. Due to the effectiveness of the project, the Functional organization, Pure Project organization, and Matrix organization are the three most project management structures that are still used today. References Kerzner, H. (2006). Project Management: A systems approach to planning, scheduling, and controlling. (9th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Mantel, S.J. & Meredith, J.R. (2006). Project Management: A managerial approach. (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Russell, M. (2008). Organizational structures in project management. Ezine articles. Retrieved August 01, 2008 from http://ezinearticles.com/?Organizational-Structures-In-Project-Management.